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Investigative Consulting Services

Contact us for Investigative services using Neuro Signature System or Lie Detection.

Using Neuro Signature System we can help your agency unravel the most complex cases.

Neuro Signature System is used regularly by Law Enforcement agencies especially in cases of insurgency.

If you are an Indian Law enforcement agency and require such services, please contact the Directorate of Forensic Sciences, Gujarat, Gandhinagar.

 

Time lines
The average case takes 5 days to work on including interviews with the Investigative Officers, framing the Probes and investigation direction.

It takes 1 to 2 days on an average to test each subject. This includes the time to formulate the individual Probes for the given subject.

Final Report Generation takes 2 days.

Confidentiality
All case related information is kept confidential and will only be discussed with persons we are authorized to do so.
Case information will not be retained after the investigation, and reports to your agency will be provided as hard copies.

Clearances
Customs
To avail our services outside India please note we will need customs clearances in your country to bring in our equipment.
All equipment will fit in regular Airline baggage, and no special freight is required.

Security
Your agency will have to ensure our team is provided the required clearances to work on the cases.
Adequate Security should be provided to our team.

Visas
If required your agency may need to assist in expediting our Visa applications with your respective embassies

Transport, Travel and Stay
All local transport is to be provided by your agency ensuring adequate security.
Standard International Business class travel is to be provided with Hotels of similar calibre

Assignment Acceptance
We need 2 weeks notice before we can accept an assignment
It the sole discretion of Axxonet to accept an assignment.

Payments

Will be discussed per case

All payments will be required to be cleared in advance.

NSS In Courts

NSS has been used for a decade in Indian courts as a Support to Investigation.

NSS Reports are not used as Primary Evidence.

Unlike other technologies which have been used in 2 or 3 cases, NSS has been used in over 700 cases reported by independent Forensic laboratories in areas such as Murders, Insurgency, Poaching, Illegal immigration to name a few.

NSS is routinely used in highly sensitive cases to home in on perpetrators of a crime and differentiate involvement.

BRAIN SIGNATURE PROFILING IN INDIA: IT’S STATUS AS AN AID IN INVESTIGATION AND AS CORROBORATIVE EVIDENCE - AS SEEN FROM JUDGMENTS

In a significant development in 2010 the Supreme Court of India ruled that tests such as Narco, Lie Detection and Brain Electrical Activation Profile can be conducted with Informed consent, and any information or material discovered with the help of BEOS can be admitted as Evidence in court.

Unfortunately the court confused BEAP/BEOS with the outdated and minimalistic P300 technique with which BEOS has no connection.

 

Excerpt from the Supreme Court judgement-

“However, we do leave room for the voluntary administration of the impugned techniques in the context of criminal justice, provided that certain safeguards are in place. Even when the subject has given consent to undergo any of these tests, the test results by themselves cannot be admitted as evidence because the subject does not exercise conscious control over the responses during the administration of the test. However, any information or material that is subsequently discovered with the help of voluntary administered test results can be admitted, in accordance with Section 27 of the Evidence Act, 1872.

The National Human Rights Commission had published ‘Guidelines for the Administration of Polygraph Test (Lie Detector Test) on an Accused’ in 2000. These guidelines should be strictly adhered to and similar safeguards should be adopted for conducting the ‘Narcoanalysis technique’ and the ‘Brain Electrical Activation Profile’ test.

The text of these guidelines has been reproduced below:

(i) No Lie Detector Tests should be administered except on the basis of consent of the accused. An option should be given to the accused whether he wishes to avail such test.

(ii) If the accused volunteers for a Lie Detector Test, he should be given access to a lawyer and the physical, emotional and legal implication of such a test should be explained to him by the police and his lawyer.

(iii) The consent should be recorded before a Judicial Magistrate.

(iv) During the hearing before the Magistrate, the person alleged to have agreed should be duly

represented by a lawyer.

(v) At the hearing, the person in question should also be told in clear terms that the statement that is made shall not be a ‘confessional’ statement to the Magistrate but will have the status of a statement made to the police.

(vi) The Magistrate shall consider all factors relating to the detention including the length of detention and the nature of the interrogation.

(vii) The actual recording of the Lie Detector Test shall be done by an independent agency (such as a

hospital) and conducted in the presence of a lawyer.

(viii) A full medical and factual narration of the manner of the information received must be taken on record.”

Neuro Signature System

If you are a Government Security Agency contact us for a special Information Dossier at nss@axxonet.com

Applications

NSS and BEOS AutoIS (Automated Interview System) can be used to Screen interviewees for

 

  • Crime (Murders, Rape, Theft, Fraud)
  • Narcotics
  • Poaching
  • Radical training
  • Smuggling
  • Sensitive Posts
  • Illegal Immigration
  • Plans to overstay

 

 NSS-Logo-2

Neuro Signature System measures processes in the interviewee's brain to detect presence of Experiential Knowledge of an event.

Neuro Signature System used for “Brain Electrical Oscillations Signature” Profiling has proven itself in a number of criminal cases. NSS has helped investigators, providing them first hand information from the memory of a person to help understand if he or she was involved in a particular crime/incident, or if they were just witness to it.

BEOS is being used as an aid to Criminal Investigation in hundreds of cases (including murders, terrorism, fraud, poaching, theft), by the Police and the reports have been presented in Court as supporting documentation. Extensive ecological validation studies and laboratory studies have already been completed which have validated the usefulness of the test for forensic and intelligence applications.

The Government of India performed its own independent Validation study with over 110 subjects, and found the system provides  accuracy level of 95%

Overview

In recent years great importance has been given to forensic tools to aid criminal investigation. Any investigative technique being used needs to be fool proof, tamper proof, and with a sense of urgency needs to provide accurate results to aid investigations quickly.

Detection and Identification of information from suspects has become an important need in crime investigation. Neuro Signature System measures processes in the interviewees brain to detect presence of Experiential Knowledge of an event.

Neuro Signature System used for “Brain Electrical Oscillations Signature” Profiling has proven itself in a number of criminal cases in India.
“Brain Electrical Oscillations Signature” (B.E.O.S.) Profiling opens a new chapter in search of innovations for extraction of information from the brain-mind.

This is the first technique invented, which focuses on the presence of Experiential Knowledge acquired by a person, and differentiating experiential knowledge from conceptual knowledge.

The Interviewee is not presented with questions that need to be answered or responded to. The Interviewee remains silent during the BEOS test.

The technique is based on original finding at Axxonet that during awareness of past actions (autobiographical memory), the brain produces typical electrical oscillations, which form a 'Signature' of the awareness or process related to retrieval of experience.

Axxonet developed the system under license from Prof. C.R. Mukundan, who conceptualized and developed the electrophysiological algorithm of the relevant neural process. The technology development comprised of development of Probe Designing Methods, Equipments, Control programs, Signal processing and Analyses programs, requiring invention of new methods and techniques.

 

Test Duration & Setup

The average Test duration is between 30 to 45 minutes, and is completely Non Invasive. There are no questions asked, and the Suspect does not have to respond to any information presented. The Suspect wears a Sensor array cap on their head [Similar to a swimming cap] which detects their mental processes during the test.


Current Usage

NSS has helped investigators, providing them first hand information from the memory of a person to help understand if he or she was involved in a particular crime/incident, or if they were just witness to it. .

BEOS is being used as an aid to Criminal Investigation in hundreds of cases (including murders, terrorism, fraud, poaching, theft), by the Police and the reports have been presented in Court as supporting documentation.

NSS is being used in India and other countries. Axxonet is actively involved with Indian Law enforcement in analysis of various types of cases, and has an exclusive NSS Lab setup for various agencies to use.

Validation
Extensive ecological validation studies and laboratory studies have already been completed which have validated the usefulness of the test for forensic and intelligence applications.  

The Government of India has performed its own independent Validation study with over 110 subjects, and found the system provides a accuracy level of 95%.

Comparison to other techniques
NSS does not rely on the old P300 waveform technique which is a simple stimulus recognition test. To use P300 to detect presence of information would be akin to diagnose Malaria or Jaundice using a Thermometer.

The simplistic P300 waveform which is generated at about 300 milliseconds after the presentation of a stimulus to a subject, is only an indicator of registration of a stimulus by the brain, and cannot be used in complex criminal analysis scenarios, where memory and remembrance processes are analysed. P300 based simulation tests are routinely performed at the under grad and school level today, and any usage by justice or intelligence agencies should be validated first.

NSS is far superior to techniques depending on Autonomic measures like - GSR, ECG, Pulse, Blood Pressure, Respiration which can easily be controlled by a suspect.

It is not based on simple variances in such measures, or neural network comparisons with a databank, which can be manipulated easily by the interviewee.

Current Users
Hundreds of cases have been solved using NSS, and continue to be solved.

Government agencies using NSS currently are

  • Police Forces
  • Judicial System
  • Intelligence Agencies

Lie Detectors

Axxonet represents the best polygraph system in the world produced by Limestone Technologies.

The product is very easy to use and requires minimal time span to understand the usefulness of the product.

Contact us for our specialized training programs.

limestone c

Polygraph Professional Suite™ Software:

•FrontEnd Organizer
•QuestionEditor
•ChartRecorder
•ChartViewer


Included Hardware Components:

•The DataPac_USB™ Data Acquisition Instrument
•StingRay SE™ piezo countermeasure cushion
•8' EDA lead, traditional metal plated EDA electrodes, Silver/Silver wet-gel EDA snap connectors
•2 Pneumatic Respiration Transducers
•One size fits all Blood Pressure Cuff
•Exclusive Limestone FingerCuff™
•Limestone custom Pelican instrument case


Optional Hardware Components:

•StingRay Lite pneumatic countermeasure cushion
•StingRay pneumatic countermeasure cushion
•Temperature Thermistor
•Cardio PLE
•Logitech digital video camera
•PCMCIA or USB finger print scanner

Outstanding Features:

•8 Channel Instrument
•FDA approved touch-less input connectors
•Fully Synchronized Digital Video
•Software Calipers for simpler manual scoring
•Automatic measurement feature
•Fully integrated CDR/DVD recording tools
•Automatic Report Writing Templates
•Multi-Language Platform
•Open Data Format
•Digital Audio/Video Presentation
•Realtime Graph Controls
•Full Featured Software Controls
•Programmable Event Markers
•Digital Audio Dictations
•Additional Features

Independent Govt Validation

Brain Electrical Oscillation Signature Profiling has been validated independently by the Govt of India by the Directorate of Forensic Sciences Gandhinagar, Gujarat and the Technology Information, Forecasting and Assessment Council (TIFAC).

Please Contact us for further details - nss@axxonet.com. 

Roc

ROC curve using (a) Total EK scores (red) and (b) Total EK scores in sequence (green)

 

About Brain Signature Profiling [ BEOS ]

“B.E.O.S.” refers to a signature extracted from the electrical oscillations of the brain of a person, obtained while presenting probes related to specific events in which the person is suspected to have participated. The signature represents the presence of electrical activation pattern indicating retrieval of Experiential Knowledge of the said participation. The signature is absent while the subject retrieves information, which one could have conceptually (from sources other than participation) acquired.

B.E.O.S is also called Brain-Mapping in some parts of the world which is a misnomer.

Read more ...

BEOS Publications

Research papers on B.E.O.S. Profiling presented in conferences and published (2009 – 2005).

BEOS Profiling papers presented and published (2004 – 2009)
I. Publication containing related work
1. Mukundan, C.R. (2007). Brain Experience: Neuroexperiential Perspectives of Brain-Mind. Atlantic Publishers, New Delhi.

II. Papers presented In conferences and published as proceedings

 1. Mukundan CR, et al. (2009) Brain Electrical Oscillations Signature Profiling.    Paper submitted.


 2. Puranik, D.A., Joseph, S.K., Daundkar, B.B., Garad, M.V. (2009). Brain Signature profiling in India. It’s status as an aid in investigation and as corroborative evidence – as seen from judgments. Proceedings of XX All India Forensic Science Conference, 815 – 822, November 15 – 17, Jaipur.


3. Sunny, J., Puranik, D.A., Daundkar, B.B., Garad, M.V. (2009). Presence of Experiential Knowledge in suspected vs. control subjects. An evaluation of Brain Electrical Oscillations Signature Profiling. Proceedings of XX All India Forensic Science Conference, 803 – 813, November 15 – 17, Jaipur.    


 4. Sunny, J., Mukundan, C.R., Puranik, D.A., Daundkar, B.B., Garad, M.V. (2009). Eliciting Experiential Knowledge – Some theoretical and practical considerations in designing probes for Brain Signature Profiling. Proceedings of XX All India Forensic Science Conference, 823 – 834, November 15 – 17, Jaipur.  


 5. Khopkar, N.M., Shukla, A.D., Shah, D.G., Vaya, S.L. Significance of isolated Experiential Knowledge in interpreting Brain Electrical Oscillations Signature Profile. Proceedings of XX All India Forensic Science Conference, 787 – 794, November 15 – 17, Jaipur.    


 6. Wagh, N.B., Vaya, S.L., Vyas, J.M., Asawa, T.L., Khandwala, S.U., Khera, G., Khopkar, N.M., Parekh, D.D., Mukundan, C.R. (2009). Sensitivity and Specificity of Brain Electrical Oscillations Signature Profiling. Abstract in  Proceedings of XIX All India Forensic Science Conference,  pp 112, January 18-20, Gandhinagar.


 7. Vaya, S.L. Vyas, J.M., Khopkar, N.M., Wagh, N.B., Rever, J.M., Asawa, T.L., Khandwala, S.U., Khera, G., Parekh, D.D., Mukundan, C.R. (2009a). Scenario wise analysis of experiential knowledge in brain electrical oscillation signature profiling. Abstract in Proceedings of XIX All India Forensic Science Conference, Pp. 113, January 18-20, Gandhinagar.


 8. Vaya, S.L. Vyas, J.M., Khopkar, N.M., Wagh, N.B., Rever, J.M., Asawa, T.L., Khandwala, S.U., Khera, G., Parekh, D.D., Mukundan, C.R. (2009b). Presence of Experiential Knowledge in sequence in BEOS profiling: Implications for forensic formulations. Abstract in Proceedings of  XIX All India Forensic Science Conference, Pp. 114, January 18 – 20, Gandhinagar.


 9. Vaya, S.L., Khopkar, N.M., Shukla, A.D., Patel, V.H., Shah, D.G., (2009c). Brain Electrical Osicllations Signature profiling technique to verify the truthfulness of confessions. (2009). Abstract in Proceedings, XIX All India Forensic Science Conference, Pp. 115, January 18 – 20, Gandhinagar.


 10. Anjali, Y., Rao, M.S., Ravikumar K.V. (2009). Brain Electrical OSicllations Signature profiling: An emerging tool in crime investigation. Proceedings, pp. 117- 123, XIX All India Forensic Science Conference, January 18 – 20. Gandhinagar.


 11. Mukundan,  C.R. (2008) Brain Electrical Oscillations Signature Profiling for Crime Investigation. V. Veeraraghavan (Ed.) Selective & Scientific Books, New Delhi, 123 – 146.

12. Mukundan,  C.R. (2007) Brian Signature Profiling for Crime Detection. In: Krian Rao, Indira Jai Prakas, Srinivasan K. (Eds.) Mindscapes: Global Perspectives on Psychology in Mental Health. NIMHANS Publication, 282 – 97.

III. Papers presented in International Conferences with abstracts published

13. Mukundan, C.R. (2008a). BEOS Profiling in Crime Investigation – paper presented in the Annual Conference of Division of Forensic Psychology, British Psychological Society, June 24 – 26, Edinburgh, UK.

14. Mukundan, C.R. (2008b). BEOS Profiling: New Methods in Crime Investigation. Invited paper presented in Forensic Psychology Workshop by British Psychological Society, July 3, British Psychology Society Office, 30 Tabernacle Street, London.

15. Mukundan, C.R. (2008c). BEOS Profiling. Invited paper presented in the Annual Conference of British Psychological Society, North East of England Branch at Leeds University, June 26.

16. Mukundan, C.R. (2008d). BEOS profiling. Invited paper presented in the International Conference of South Asian Congress of Forensic Medicine & Toxicology Workshop, October 9,  Amity, Noida, India.

17. Mukundan, C.R.(2005).  Brain electrical oscillation signature profiling for forensic applications, Paper presented in 17th Annual International Conference of Association of Forensic Sciences, August 21-26, Hongkong.

18. Krishnamurthy, R.  (2008)  BEOS As an Aid to Interrogation. Invited lecture in Forensic Psychology Workshop by British Psychological Society, July 3, BPS Office, 30 Tabernacle Street, London.

19. Sunny Joseph (2008). BEOS As an Aid to Interrogation. Invited paper presented in Forensic Psychology Workshop by British Psychological Society, July 3, BPS Office, 30 Tabernacle Street, London.

20. Vaya, S.L. (2008) Polygraph and Brain Electrical Oscillations Signature (BEOS)  As an Aid to Scientific Interrogation 1: Indian Scenario. Invited paper presented in Forensic Psychology Workshop by British Psychological Society, July 3, 2008, BPS Office, 30 Tabernacle Street, London.

21. Mukundan, C.R. (2007). Invited 3 hours lecture on BEOS profiling at the Neurodynamics Laboratory, SUNY Downstate Medical Center, New York, May 15.

22. Mukundan, C.R. (2007). Invited lecture on BEOS profiling at the Kirby Forensic Psychiatric Center, New York, May 11.
    

IV. Papers presented in National Conferences and Workshops


 23. Navaz Irani, Sunny Joseph, K., Deepti Puranik, Nilesh Shinde, Goraksha, U., Ghumatkar, S. V., Garad. M.V., (2009.). A Case Study of the Murder of a School Teacher through Forensic Psychological Evaluation.  XIX All India Forensic Science Conference Organized by Directorate of Forensic Sciences, Ministry of Home Affairs, Govt. of India, at Nirma University, Ahmedabad, Gujarat, January 18 –20.

24. Sunny Joseph, K., Deepti Puranik, Navaz Irani, Nilesh Shinde, Goraksha, U., Ghumatkar, S. V., Garad. M.V., (2009). Brain Electrical Oscillation Signature(BEOS) Profiling: A Forensic Case Study of a Diamond Theft, XIX All India Forensic Science Conference Organized by Directorate of Forensic Sciences, Ministry of Home Affairs, Govt. of India, Nirma University, Ahmedabad, Gujarat, January 18 –20.

25. Sunny Joseph, K., Navaz Irani, Deepti Puranik, Nilesh Shinde, Goraksha, U., Ghumatkar, S. V., Garad. M.V., (2009). Brain Electrical Oscillation Signature(BEOS) Profiling in Identifying Offenders in Forensic Cases.  XIX All India Forensic Science Conference Organized by Directorate of Forensic Sciences, Ministry of Home Affairs, Govt. of India, at Nirma University, Ahmedabad, Gujarat, January 18 –20.

26. Mukundan, C.R. (2009). Interpretation of Experiential Knowledge in BEOS Profile. Invited paper in the technical session to Judges in the XX All India Forensic Science Conference, 787 – 794, November 15 – 17, Jaipur.  

27. Invited presentation on BEOS profiling to CBI officers, at CBI Headquarters, New Delhi, September 2, 2009.

28. Mukundan, C.R. (2009). BEOS Profiling as an aid to investigation. Invited presentation in the technical session to Judges and Police Officers in the XIX All India Forensic Science Conference Organized by Directorate of Forensic Sciences, Ministry of Home Affairs, Govt. of India, at Nirma University, Ahmedabad, Gujarat, January 18 –20.

29. Mukundan, C.R. (2008). BEOS profiling. Invited paper presented in the CME of Indian Psychiatric Society Kerala Branch, on Forensic Psychiatry, May 25.

30. Mukundan, C.R. (2008). Brain signature profiling. Invited lecture at the National Workshop at Amity University, Noida. March.

31. Sunny Joseph. (2008). BEOS profiling: a forensic investigative aid. Invited lecture at the National Workshop at Amity University, Noida, March.   

32. Mukundan, C.R. (2007). BEOS Profiling technique. Invited paper in the XVIII All India Forensic Science Conference at Kolkotta, November 16-18.

33. Mukundan, C.R. (2007). BEOS profiling technique. Invited presentation to Orissa Judicial Academy, December 26.

34. Mukundan, C.R. (2007). Half day National Workshop on BEOS profiling technology for Psychiatrists, Psychiatry Department of SN Medical College, Agra, September 8-10.   

35. Mukundan, C.R. (2007). Invited lecture on Forensic Psychology for investigation to participants from judiciary in Haryana Police Academy, Madhuban, Haryana, August 30.

36. Invited faculty for presenting paper on BEOS technology at National Institute of Criminology and Forensic Sciences, New Delhi, December 2006.

37. Invited presentation on Neural Representation of Language, current perspective of Complex Language Disorder, 16th National Academy of Psychology (NAOP) Conference, Department of Humanities & Social Sciences IIT Bombay, December 14th -16th, 2006.

38. Invited faculty for programs conducted by National Resource Center, DFS, Gandhinagar, in BEOS profiling techniques and forensic psychology. 2006

39. Invited to conduct half day seminar on Brain Electrical Oscillation Signature Profiling at BPR&D, MHA, October 31,2005

40. Invited to present keynote address on Brain Electrical Oscillation Signature Profiling in the 6th Annual National Conference of Indian Forensic Medicine and Toxicology held at Chandigarh, on 19 – 20th November 2005.  

41. Invited to Present paper on Brain Electrical Oscillation Signature profiling at CBI training college, Gaziabad, October 2005.

42. Invited to conduct seminar Brain Electrical Oscillation Signature profiling at Amitti Institute of Forensic Sciences, New Delhi, October 2005

43. Invited to present paper on Brain Electrical Activation Fingerprinting (Not Brain Fingerprinting) for Crime Investigation in the National Seminar and Workshop on Recent Advances in Forensic Sciences and Forensic Medicine organized by the Department of Forensic Sciences, Legal Services of Goa and Directorate of Forensic Sciences, Ministry of Home Affairs, Government of India, and Directorate of Forensic Sciences Laboratories, State of Maharashtra, at Goa on 10th and 11th October, 2004.

44. Invited to conduct 2 days workshop on the Role of Brain Electrical Activation Fingerprinting (Not Brain Fingerprinting) in Crime Investigation organized by the Directorate of Forensic Science, Ministry of Home Affairs, and the Directorate of Forensic Sciences, Gandhinagar on 24th and 25th July 2004 at Gandhinagar for Judges, Police personal, Forensic Scientists, and Public Prosecutors.

45. Invited to present paper on Brain Electrical Activation Fingerprinting (Not Brain Fingerprinting) in the plenary session in the National Seminar on Recent Advances in Forensic Sciences on August 1, 2004, organized by the Directorate of Forensic Sciences, Ministry of Home Affairs, Government of India, at New Delhi.

46. Invited to present paper on Brain Electrical Activation Fingerprinting (Not Brain Fingerprinting) for Crime Investigation in the National Seminar and Workshop on Recent Advances in Forensic Sciences and Forensic Medicine organized by the Department of Forensic Sciences, Government Medical College, Aurangabad, Directorate of Forensic Sciences, Ministry of Home Affairs, Government of India, and Directorate of Forensic Sciences Laboratories, State of Maharashtra, at Aurnagabad on 28th and 29th August, 2004.

Automated Interview System

NSS - AIS - S3 Automated Interview System [ S3 ]

 

NSS AIS is an automated quick screening system for subjects suspected of carrying out of being involved in illegal activities.

NSS AIS has preset templates that officers can use to test for

 

  • Narcotics dealing/carrying
  • Poaching
  • Radical training
  • Smuggling
  • Sensitive Posts
  • Illegal Immigration
  • Plans to overstay
 
NSS AIS Logo1 

 

NSS AIS is based on the principles of BEOS and it the perfect screening companion at

  • Checkposts
  • Immigration points
  • Airports
  • Seaports
  • Customs

 

 

NSS In Courts

NSS has been used for a decade in Indian courts as a Support to Investigation.

NSS Reports are not used as Primary Evidence.

Unlike other technologies which have been used in 2 or 3 cases, NSS has been used in over 700 cases reported by independent Forensic laboratories in areas such as Murders, Insurgency, Poaching, Illegal immigration to name a few.

NSS is routinely used in highly sensitive cases to home in on perpetrators of a crime and differentiate involvement.

BRAIN SIGNATURE PROFILING IN INDIA: IT’S STATUS AS AN AID IN INVESTIGATION AND AS CORROBORATIVE EVIDENCE - AS SEEN FROM JUDGMENTS

In a significant development in 2010 the Supreme Court of India ruled that tests such as Narco, Lie Detection and Brain Electrical Activation Profile can be conducted with Informed consent, and any information or material discovered with the help of BEOS can be admitted as Evidence in court.

Unfortunately the court confused BEAP/BEOS with the outdated and minimalistic P300 technique with which BEOS has no connection.

 

Excerpt from the Supreme Court judgement-

“However, we do leave room for the voluntary administration of the impugned techniques in the context of criminal justice, provided that certain safeguards are in place. Even when the subject has given consent to undergo any of these tests, the test results by themselves cannot be admitted as evidence because the subject does not exercise conscious control over the responses during the administration of the test. However, any information or material that is subsequently discovered with the help of voluntary administered test results can be admitted, in accordance with Section 27 of the Evidence Act, 1872.

The National Human Rights Commission had published ‘Guidelines for the Administration of Polygraph Test (Lie Detector Test) on an Accused’ in 2000. These guidelines should be strictly adhered to and similar safeguards should be adopted for conducting the ‘Narcoanalysis technique’ and the ‘Brain Electrical Activation Profile’ test.

The text of these guidelines has been reproduced below:

(i) No Lie Detector Tests should be administered except on the basis of consent of the accused. An option should be given to the accused whether he wishes to avail such test.

(ii) If the accused volunteers for a Lie Detector Test, he should be given access to a lawyer and the physical, emotional and legal implication of such a test should be explained to him by the police and his lawyer.

(iii) The consent should be recorded before a Judicial Magistrate.

(iv) During the hearing before the Magistrate, the person alleged to have agreed should be duly

represented by a lawyer.

(v) At the hearing, the person in question should also be told in clear terms that the statement that is made shall not be a ‘confessional’ statement to the Magistrate but will have the status of a statement made to the police.

(vi) The Magistrate shall consider all factors relating to the detention including the length of detention and the nature of the interrogation.

(vii) The actual recording of the Lie Detector Test shall be done by an independent agency (such as a

hospital) and conducted in the presence of a lawyer.

(viii) A full medical and factual narration of the manner of the information received must be taken on record.”